For older adults less familiar with social media or the internet, collaborative education and resource provision in community settings (e.g., Ma et al., 2015) could be effective. Counterevidence for East Asians as a model minority in health is particularly evident in cancer control science5. Cancer has been the leading cause of mortality in Asian Americans since the 2000s6 (Chen et al., 2018). Below we present non-exhaustive examples across the cancer control continuum suggesting that it is erroneous to apply the MMS to Asians, including East Asians, given their vulnerabilities in cancer risk, preventive behaviors, and cancer-related outcomes. Often, data show greater disparities for the LEP, foreign-born, less U.S.-acculturated.

  • For example, onboarding programs can implement reattribution training and belongingness interventions and a few examples were provided.
  • That is, if an evaluation is conducted by more than one supervisor and focuses on behaviors and quantitative metrics of performance, evaluations may be less biased and may not evoke threat (Austin and Villanova, 1992; Bommer et al., 1995).
  • We conducted a second experiment to see if expressions of anger from Black women activated the angry Black woman stereotype in the minds of people observing her.

A study showed that men performed worse when decoding non-verbal cues if the test was described as designed to measure “social sensitivity” – a stereotypically feminine skill. However, when the task was introduced as an “information processing test”, they did much better.

Interventions developed based on anecdotal evidence or intuition may backfire and create more threat (e.g., Dweck, 1999; Schneider et al., 1996). Research is still underway to address how timing affects intervention effectiveness (Cohen et al., 2012). Interventions that focus on early stages (e.g., onboarding) serve a prevention function to intervene before the onset of stereotype threat, for example when employees are still developing their initial perceptions of the workplace. Interventions may be implemented after a problem has already been identified and can disrupt the downward spiral, for example after a merger or during a mid-quarter progress meeting (Cohen et al., 2012).

Confirmation bias

In Japanese singles looking for love and companionship: addition, implementation intention planning with specificity of when and how the MMS will be countered cognitively or behaviorally may reduce effects of the MMS (Mendoza et al., 2010). Asian Americans are at greater risk for exposure to environmental health hazards than NHWs (e.g., Houston et al., 2014; Payne-Sturges & Gee, 2006). In California, Korean and Japanese women have greater exposure to mammary gland carcinogens than NHW women (Quach et al., 2014). Hence, accommodating cultural commonalities and differences is extremely important to overcoming cultural barriers.

Recommendations for Demarginalizing the Health-related Needs of Asian Americans

Regarding the physical workplace environment, décor can signal to employees, and prospective recruits, whether they are welcomed in the organization. For example, halls decorated with photos of senior management and executives that represent Caucasian males may trigger doubt that women and minorities can advance in the organization. Other seemingly benign objects, such as the choice of magazines in a reception area, can affect the perception of the organization’s diversity values . Do the magazines reflect a diversity of tastes and are they targeted to diverse audiences? Décor that communicates a masculine culture, such as references to geeky pop culture, may signal to women and those who do not identify with these cues that they do not belong (Cheryan et al., 2009). For example, one well-known intervention strategy within the stereotype threat literature is to increase minority representation within the organization (Purdie-Vaughns et al., 2008; Spencer et al., 2015).

Key Learning about Culture and Interviews

Societal stereotypes of STEM disciplines suggest that scientists, mathematicians, and engineers are typically male, work in isolation in a laboratory, value competitiveness, and have little time for family . Stereotypes of scientists make STEM unappealing fields of study or work for many women (Cheryan et al., 2009; Cheryan, 2012) and racial minorities, particularly those with communal goals (Diekman et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2014; Thoman et al., 2015). Two additional areas related to stereotype threat are closely tied to sense of belonging in university or the workplace and personal values. Research on communal goal affordances finds that women may be underrepresented in many male-dominated fields (e.g., STEM) because they do not believe these careers can meet their goals of nurturing and helping others (Diekman et al., 2010). This section reviews research and interventions on communal goal affordances, and then interdependence and cultural mismatch. The best way to start, as an individual or organization, is with a proven framework—such as a cultural competency training and education program. We didn’t develop our unconscious bias alone, and we can’t vanquish it alone.

One good first step is exactly what you are doing now—learn more about the problem. White students at Rutgers University who completed a course on prejudice and conflict became less prejudiced and less stereotypical compared with similar students who did not take the course . It is important to note that the class dealt quite specifically with prejudice and conflict. The real benefit comes from asking difficult questions, not avoiding them. I enjoy “celebrating diversity.” Learning about new cultures, trying new food, and commemorating new holidays broadens the mind and opens us up to new possibilities. But in the absence of dealing with the tough issues of prejudice and stereotyping, it doesn’t usually affect the fundamental ways in which we think about people of other races and cultures. Celebrating diversity is fun and worthwhile, but it’s no substitute for addressing difficult questions head-on.

Have you ever experienced or witnessed what you thought was discrimination? Discussions about stereotypes, prejudice, racism, and discrimination are unsettling to some.

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